What Are EEG-Neuroendophenotypes?

Myneurva » Neurofeedback Blog » Neurofeedback Education » What Are EEG-Neuroendophenotypes?
Image of an EEG scan shown in wave format

Written By: Dr. Starr

Dr. Starr is a medical doctor, psychiatrist and computational neuroscientist who has been active in Brain-Computer Interface and Neurofeedback since 1990.
To learn more about neurofeedback, please read the article; What Is Neurofeedback. If you are interested in home neurofeedback please read the article; Neurofeedback At Home.

What is a Phenotype?

Let’s look at the etymology, or the origin of words, to understand “What is a Phenotype.”

The etymology of pheno comes from the Greek meaning to show. In biology, a phenotype is a trait expressed by an organism due to the DNA it has inherited from parents. Examples of phenotypes include hair color, eye color, and skin tone. 

What is an Endophenotype?

Exophenotypes and Endophenotypes are types of phenotypes. Exo means outside, and these traits are external, like the examples mentioned above – hair color, eye color, etc. 

Endophenotypes are traits that cannot be seen but can be measured. Endophenotypes are inside the body and signal some disorder or ability. Metabolic activity is one example of an endophenotype. For example, some people tend to become obese, while others do not gain weight when eating the same food. In this example, it is the basal resting activity of the cells in the body that are responsible for storing adipose tissue or fat. 

What is a Neuroendophenotype? 

Neuroendophenotypes are specific markers in the brain that can be measured and are reproducible across populations. Several neuroendophenotypes have been studied for schizophrenia, autism, depression, ADHD, and PTSD. There are also known Neuroendophenotypes for specific abilities like intelligence and mathematics aptitude.

What is an EEG?

Please read our article here. 

What is an EEG-Neuroendophenotype 

Neuroendophenotypes can be measured in many different ways. Myneurva uses the EEG to measure the brain and Artificial Intelligence to assist with identifying 12 different neuroendophenotypes. These include non-verbal learning disorders, memory problems, attentional issues, PTSD, Bipolar, Depression, ADHD, Tinnitus, Traumatic Brain Injury, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Migraine. 

References

The use of neurophysiological endophenotypes to understand the genetic basis of schizophrenia

Braff DL, Light GA. The use of neurophysiological endophenotypes to understand the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2005;7(2):125-135. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2005.7.2/dlbraff

Meyers JL, Zhang J, Wang JC, et al. An endophenotype approach to the genetics of alcohol dependence: a genome wide association study of fast beta EEG in families of African ancestry. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22(12):1767-1775. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.239

Bandelow B, Baldwin D, Abelli M, et al. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2017;18(3):162-214. doi:10.1080/15622975.2016.119086